To round out this CIC series on Canada-China relations, and set the stage for future work, this article presents 10 core questions as a basis for a coherent, constructive and effective China policy. The US Senate’s most recent decision to invest $250 billion to boost the country’s ability to compete with Chinese technology is but one indication of shifts in global approaches to Xi Jinping’s China. China today, and Xi’s vision for its future, have significant implications for Canada’s domestic and global interests. Canada therefore needs a major recalibration of its approach to China—one that is strategic, informed, and non-partisan. It should be guided by Canada’s short-term and long-term interests and values, based on a clear understanding of China’s current domestic political, economic and social drivers, and supported by a coherent, well-resourced, and detailed action plan. Addressing these questions should help Canada formulate a China policy that tackles current challenges and equips us to anticipate and address new ones that will inevitably emerge in the decades ahead.